29sep9:0010:30Forging process9:00 - 10:30(GMT+02:00) View in my time Chair: Lukasz Madej - AGH University of Science and Technology in Kraków
- 29. september 2022
09:00 NOCARBforging 2050 – steps towards a carbon neutral and sustainable forging industry09:00 - 09:30Hans-Willi Raedt - prosimalys GmbH
The Kyoto protocol from 1997 and the Paris Climate Agreement dated 2012 are coming into life. With the European Green Deal communicated in 2019, an action plan has been published which will set the political, societal and economic boundary conditions towards an economy with zero net emissions of green house gases, mainly CO₂. The transition of these goals into industrial practice can be viewed in statements of e.g. board members of car makers, indicating that besides the price of a component, the CO₂e-emissions will become relevant for sourcing decisions. Financing institution are changing their policy towards favouring companies that support sustainability. Even though it can be expected that this will take a while until it becomes daily routine, it is high time to start actions to be able to calculate the CO₂e-emissions of one’s products as well as to start the process to reduce these emissions.
As this is a challenge which many companies are facing equally, it makes sense to unite forces and cooperate on the level of the industry association. Consequently, German Forging Association IMU has started the project NOCARBforging 2050. The project is made up of two parts.
Part 1 is multilaterally financed by more than 50 participating companies. In this phase a tool for calculating CO₂e-emissions (CO₂ and CO₂-equivalent warming potential of other green house gases) for forged products following ISO 14067 has been created. This was achieved by contributions of all stakeholders from the full process chain of forged products: Steel and aluminium makers, forging companies, heat treatment suppliers as well as companies supplying equipment for billet making, presses, furnaces and surface treatment. The Forging Footprint Reduction Tool FRED has been presented in July 2021 and development has continued since.
Part 2 of NOCARBforging2050 is intended to collect ideas for CO₂-reduction and to start subsequent projects. Here, industry from the above mentioned spectrum and academic partners will join forces, create ideas for CO₂e reduction for a concrete selection of forgings and will generate ideas for research projects that can expect federal funding, too. This part has been initiated in November 2021 with a workshop EMMA: “Emissionsfreie Massivumformung” (emission free forging).
This conFAIR contribution will present results from both parts of the NOCARBforging 2050 project, including numerous approaches how to reduce CO₂e in the production of forged products.
09:30 A review of the wear mechanisms of the hot forging tools09:30 - 10:00Zbigniew Gronostajski - Wroclaw University of Science and Technology
The research done so far has shown that the main mechanisms responsible for the degradation of the tools in warm and hot forging processes are: abrasive wear, thermomechanical fatigue, plastic deformations, fatigue cracking, adhesive wear and oxidation. According to the presented research the commonly accepted view is that abrasive wear is the dominant mechanism in the degradation of the dies in hot forging.
Most of the reported research on wear deals with abrasive wear, whereas studies have clearly shown that in forging processes thermomechanical fatigue, very quickly resulting in fine cracks, is the most adverse factor. The further development of the cracks depends on the process parameters, the interaction between the die and the forging, the rate of material flow and in most cases results in a secondary network of cracks extending over the whole contact surface.
There are a lot of parameters including shape of die, hardness, contact time, sliding distance, material die, billet temperature, lubrication etc. which intensify or limit the degradation mechanisms; however, in authors’ opinion the cooling by lubrication and temperature are the most crucial. The schemas of degradation mechanisms of the die are proposed for different temperatures and lubrication.
10:00 MiViA - Use of AI-assisted microstructure analysis in the production of steel components10:00 - 10:30Rahman Rostami - TU Bergakademie Freiberg
In order to ensure the commercial quality of metallic semi-finished and finished products, they are analyzed at various stages of the production chain. MiViA's business concept addresses this existing need and offers an excellent solution with establishing a self-learning autonomous microstructure analysis system for metallic materials in combination with a database for metallographic micrographs (initially for steel with a future perspective also for e.g. titanium, copper and aluminum). Due to its reproducibility and testing stability, the system can also be integrated into customers' Industry 4.0 concepts and thus used for digital control and monitoring of production, resulting in further cost and quality advantages compared with manual microstructure analysis. Particularly in the area of steel component production, such as in the forging industry, customers benefit by avoiding production downtimes, rejects and complaints thanks to MiViA's autonomous microstructure analysis.